Efficient Handling of Polygon Data With The ES6 Proxy Object


Abstract

There is no standard data format for polygon points used in geometry applications or JSON documents. In a real world application, you don’t always have control over the data format provided by the user. A method is sought that returns points in a uniform, desired target format when accessing arrays with different data formats. Costly duplication of data is to be avoided. This paper presents an elegant method to achieve this goal using the JavaScript “Proxy” object. Here focusing on 2D points, this concept can be easily generalised to arrays of 3D points or other complex, homogeneous data types.

1. Introduction

2D points are normally described by Cartesian x- and y-coordinates. Mostly they are interpreted as polygon vertices, but this might be irrelevant here. The number of points is considered greater than one; they are usually stored in an Array.

Fig 1: Four Points as Polygon Data.

Different representations used in practice range from separate arrays for x- and y-coordinates to individual objects for the points.

const xCoords = [100,300,300,100]; const yCoords = [100,100,300,300]; const flat = [100,100,300,100,300,300,100,300]; const arr = [[100,100],[300,100],[300,300],[100,300]]; const obj = [{x:100,y:100},{x:300,y:100},{x:300,y:300},{x:100,y:300}];

Listing 1: Different representations of 2D Points.

The aim is now to have unified access to those different point formats. Point access (read only) should …

  1. work the same way as used with arrays, i.e. points[i].
  2. return the point in a specific target format.
  3. work with different loops provided by the language.

Additionally Array methods like find, filter, etc. should work as expected.

2. Concepts

Starting with ES6, Iterators, Generators and Proxies are official JavaScript features [1]. We want to examine them for suitability according to the three goals from above.

For this we start with two different Arrays for x- and y-coordinates and want to access points as {x,y} objects from them, i.e.

const xCoords = [100,300,300,100]; const yCoords = [100,100,300,300]; for (let i=0; i<points.length; i++) console.log(points[i]); for (let p of points) console.log(p); console.log(...points);

Listing 2: Unified Array Access Returning Point Objects.

Throughout this text we are allowed to assume for simplicity, that Arrays xCoords and yCoords are always of the same dimension.

2.1 Iterators

Iterators bring the concept of iteration directly into the core language and provide a mechanism for customizing the behavior of for...of loops.
– MDN [2]

We implement both, the iterable protocol and the iterator protocol [3].

function iterator(xarr, yarr) { let index = 0; return { next() { return index < xarr.length ? { value: { x:xarr[index], y:yarr[index++] }, done: false } : { done: true }; }, [Symbol.iterator]() { return this; } } } const points = iterator(xcoords, ycoords);

Listing 3: Iterator object returned by function.

Variable points is now holding an Iterator object returned by the iterator function. Reusing it in the example from Listing 2 shows, that for..of loop as well as spread operator works as expected. Single element access is possible by points.next() method, but standard array element access points[i] and with it the traditional for(;;) loop is not supported.

If we want to reuse points multiple times, we simply rewrite { done: true } to { done: !(index = 0) }.

An Iterator is no Array, so Array methods – except static Array.from() function – do not work with it.

2.2 Generators

Generator objects are very similar to Iterators and even somewhat more elegant. Generators conform to both the iterable protocol and the iterator protocol. They cannot be instantiated directly, instead they are returned from a generator function [4].

function* generator(xarr, yarr) { for (let i=0; i<xarr.length; i++) yield {x: xarr[i], y: yarr[i]}; } const points = generator(xcoords, ycoords);

Listing 4: Generator object implicitly returned by function.

Variable points from Listing 4 holds a Generator object implicitly returned by the generator function. Reusing it in Listing 2 example shows behavior identical to Iterators. Only for..of loop and spread operator work as expected.

Please note, that generators cannot be reset to initial state. We need to call generator(xcoords, ycoords) each time.

2.3 Proxy Object

The Proxy object enables us to create a proxy for another object, which can intercept and redefine fundamental operations for that object. We create a Proxy object with new Proxy(target, handler). Herein target is the original object and handler an object with a predefined – not extensible – interface [5].

In our context we don’t have a single object (array) to create a proxy for, but two. So it reads:

const proxy = function(xarr, yarr) { return new Proxy([], { get: (pts, key) => { if (!isNaN(+key)) return {x:xarr[+key],y:yarr[+key]} else return xarr[key]; } }); } const points = proxy(xcoords, ycoords);

Listing 5: Proxy object returned by function.

Variable points is now holding a Proxy object returned by the proxy function. Reusing it in the example from Listing 2 shows, that usual array access points[i], dimension property length and with it the traditional for(;;) loop works as expected. Array methods are also supported – at least the non-modifyable ones get correct results due to read-only access of the proxy.

On the other hand Proxy object does not support the iteration protocols, so for..of loop and spread operator is not working. Applying console.log(...points) results in "TypeError: can't convert symbol to number".

2.4 Intermediate Results

Applying the Proxy object to 2D point data provides promising results and is clearly superior to Iterator and Generator objects. It behaves as if it were an array itself.

Table 1: Comparison of Iterator, Generator and Proxy object behavior.
Apply Iterator Generator Proxy
arr[i]
arr.length
for(;;)
Array.isArray
for..of
Array.from
JSON.stringify

The only missing thing is lack of support of the iteration protocols.

2.5 Proxy Object Enhanced

The Proxy object does not support the iterable protocol and the iterator protocol natively. Let us try to implement them to make the example in Listing 2 work as a whole.

const proxy = function(xarr, yarr) { const points = new Array(~~xarr.length); points[Symbol.iterator] = function() { let index = 0; return { next() { return index < xarr.length ? { value: { x:xarr[index], y:yarr[index++] }, done: false } : { done: true }; } } } return new Proxy(points, { get: (pts, key) => { if (key === Symbol.iterator) return points[Symbol.iterator].bind(points); else if (!isNaN(+key)) return {x:xarr[key],y:yarr[key]}; else return xarr[key]; } }); }

Listing 6: Proxy object implementing iteration protocols.

In our proxy wrapper function in Listing 6 we add a helper array points with correct length property and implement a custom [Symbol.iterator] method on it. In the Proxy‘s get method the Symbol.iterator key is handled explicitly then.

Please note, that on line 2 of Listing 6 in new Array(~~xarr.length) the double ~~ operator efficiently works like Math.floor and the Array constructor only reserves empty slots and should not allocate memory [6].

These additions are sufficient to enable our points object from Listing 2 to deal with for..of loops and spread operator correctly.

It is perfectly mimicking an array now – restricted to read access only though. So points.find((p)=>Math.hypot(p.x,p.y) > 400) correctly yields the point {x:300,y:300}.

Modifying the array doesn’t work, as our proxy handler does not implement the set method. In fact, we do not want that either, as it is considered bad practice. Modifications should be made transparently to the original array.

3. Practical Applications

First we want to move to a more realistic polygon structure contained in a single array. This requires a modification of our proxy implementation.

const polygon = [100,100,300,100,300,300,100,300]; const proxy = function(poly) { const pnts = new Array(~~(poly.length/2)); pnts[Symbol.iterator] = function() { ... } return new Proxy(poly, { get: (pts, key) => { if (key === Symbol.iterator) return pnts[Symbol.iterator].bind(pnts); else if (!isNaN(+key)) return {x:pts[key*2],y:pts[key*2+1]}; else if (key === 'length') return ~~(pts.length/2); else return pts[key]; } }); } const points = proxy(polygon);

Listing 7: Proxy object for a flat points array.

Analogously to this we can adapt the implementation in Listing 7 for an array holding point arrays as well. An array containing point objects {x,y} needs no proxy at all, as it already contains points in our target format.

3.1 Transformations

Our proxy‘s can not only handle various user-side polygon data formats, but also manage more advanced transformations. Mostly only the change of one line in Listing 7 is necessary.

... else if (!isNaN(+key)) { const i = pts.length - 1 - key; return {x:pts[i].x, y:pts[i].y}; } ... ... else if (!isNaN(+key)) { const p = pts[+key]; return {r:Math.hypot(p.x,p.y), w:Math.atan2(p.y,p.x)}; } ... const rotPoly = function(poly,w,x0=0,y0=0) { ... const sw = Math.sin(w), cw = Math.cos(w); const x = (1-cw)*x0 + sw*y0, y = -sw*x0 + (1-cw)*y0; return new Proxy(poly, { get: (pts, key) => { ... else if (!isNaN(+key)) { const p = pts[i]; return {x: p.x*cw - p.y*sw + x, y: p.x*sw + p.y*cw + y}; } ...

The charming fact with this approach is, that there is no mutation or copying of geometry data necessary. So the reverse proxy might be even a better solution than applying native Array.reverse method, since the latter transposes array elements in place.

3.2 Concatenation

Another good thing is the possibility of serial combination of transformations. Let

  • flat be the proxy handling a flat points array,
  • rev be the proxy delivering points in reverse order,
  • rot be the rotation of points by angle w about center x0,y0,

then

rot(rev(flat(poly)),w,x0,y0);

will deliver rotated polygon points in reversed order and in object format {x,y} from its original flat coordinates array in a time and memory efficient way.

4. Conclusion

Users polygon data format cannot always be controlled by the application. So different approaches for transforming points to a unified target format in a memory and time efficient way is discussed in this paper.

The comparison of ES6 Iterator, Generator and Proxy object shows the clear superiority of Proxy for this task. After equipping the Proxy object with the iterable protocol and the iterator protocol, it behaves identically to a JavaScript Array.

The lightweight and easy to implement Proxy technique described is not only useful for data conversion, but also for topological (point order) and geometric (rotate, scale, translate) transformations.

The source code to Listing 2…6 can be found on GitHub [7]. The HTML page to this paper [8] is generated by Markdown+Math, which is documented [9] and available on GitHub [10].

References

[1] ECMA-262 6th Edition (https://262.ecma-international.org/6.0/)
[2] MDN – Iterators and generators (tinyurl.com/2d3v9sbr)
[3] MDN – Iteration protocols (https://tinyurl.com/2a54tedb)
[4] MDN – Generator (https://tinyurl.com/e8xyz2vy)
[5] MDN – Proxy (https://tinyurl.com/3ywxevcy)
[6] MDN – Array constructor (https://tinyurl.com/4scaba6e)
[7] polygon-data (https://github.com/goessner/polygon-data)
[8] Polygon Data (https://goessner.github.io/polygon-data/)
[9] Markdown+Math (https://goessner.github.io/mdmath/)
[10] mdmath (https://github.com/goessner/mdmath)



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