Responding to this older post: In D365 Online Server version: 9.2.22021.00131 it turns out that YES, you can have multiple associated views.
In our case, we have used multiple sub-grids on tabs of related entities to quickly show pertinent related info. To accommodate a narrower screen width in the related entity tab (especially on mobile platforms) we like to have a special, more condensed view that is only used on the related entity. Since the native UI doesn’t support creating multiple associated entities, the narrower view also appears in the list of views for the base entity, which clutters the list of views. Thanks to @BipenKumar for the idea – In addition to custom code, you can also do this for an existing view by exporting the view in a solution file and simply changing the query type to a 2.
Here is a screenshot of the pertinent section in the customizations.xml file: