Ruby block, procs and lambda


With the Ruby language, block, procs, and lambda are some different ways to use anonymous functions.

Why the need for anonymous functions ?

Ruby is a language that uses multiple programming paradigms, most commonly object-oriented and functional, and with its functional nature comes the idea of functions. Ruby uses three types of closures : blocks, procs, and lambdas.

If you want to see when such anonymous functions are used, see an example here :

Ruby blocks : why ?

Ruby blocks are little anonymous functions that can be passed into methods. They are enclosed in a do / end statement (often when the block have multiple lines) or between brackets {} (if the block is a one-liner), and they may have multiple arguments.

There are a few important things about blocks in Ruby:

  • Block can accept arguments and returns a value.
  • Block does not have its own name.
  • Block is made up of pieces of code.
  • A block is always called with a function or can be passed to a method call.
  • To call a block in a method with a value, the yield statement is used.
  • Blocks can be called as methods from within the method they are passed to.

How to define a Ruby block

Here we have defined the block_method method. Below is a method call after which we pass a block. Can you guess the output ?

def say_something
 puts "we are in a method"
say_something { "The block is called" }

Yes. “We are in a method”. The last line is a call to the say_something method.

But we never told say_something to read the block.

How to render a block with Ruby

What’s really going on in the code below?

def say_hey
  puts "I am inside the method"
  puts "I am ending the method"
say_hey { puts "This is inside the block" }

This time, if you call the say_hey method (without any argument, like the last line does), the following will be printed :

# => "I am inside the method"
# => "This is inside the block"
# => "I am ending the method"

We first created a method called say_hey. Then on the next line we print the string “I am inside the method”. In the next line, notice that we have used the yield keyword which will find and invoke the block the method was called with.

Calling yield inside a method will invoke the block passed as argument when this method was called

Somehow the execution flow could be trivially interpreted like this :

  1. The say_hey method execute normally.
  2. yield will execute the block code (always think “anonymous function” if you are lost) passed when called. The regular execution flow is somehow “paused” to execute this anonymous function.
  3. Once the block has finished, then method body execution continues.

How to pass parameters to a block

What if you want to pass parameters to yield ? Think about how you pass arguments to methods, like each time you give it a block.

[1, 2, 3].each {|x| puts x*2 }
# => 2
# => 4
# => 6

In this case, the .each method takes a block that has one argument.

How about doing this with our defined block ? And let’s see how yield takes the arguments.

def say_also
  yield 2
  yield 3
say_also {|e| puts "e is #{e}"}
# => e is 2
# => e is 3

Here, yield will invoke the block passed with the method call.

In our case, give an argument to the block since the block takes a parameter.

The first round will invoke the block with parameter 2. The control resumes the method, then it will call the block again this time with parameter 3.

Blocks : what if the calling function also have arguments ?

Let’s see an example :

def say_again(a, b)
  puts "a is #{a}"
  yield 2
  puts "b is #{b}"
  yield 3
say_again("foo", "bar") {|e| puts "e is #{e}"}
# => a is foo
# => e is 2
# => b is bar
# => e is 3

From what we have seen above, there should be no surprise here

What are Procs ?

What if you want to pass two blocks to your function ? How can you save your block in a variable?

Ruby introduces procs so that we can pass blocks. Proc objects are blocks of code that have been bound to a set of local variables. Once bound, the code can be called in different contexts and still access those variables.

How to define Procs

You can call new on the Proc class to create a proc. You can use the proc kernel object. The proc method is simply an alias for This can be assigned in a variable. And called with the .call method.

Let’s see an example :

my_proc = {|name| puts "Hello #{name}" }
def hello_world(named_proc)'Jane')
# => Hello Jane

What are Lambdas ?

With Ruby, the lambda keyword is used to create a lambda function. It requires a block and can set zero or more parameters. You call the resulting lambda function using the call method.

Examples :

lamb_one = lambda {|n| "Lambda one was called with #{n}"}
lamb_two = -> (n) { puts "Lambda two with #{n}" }"foo")"bar")
# => Lambda one was called with foo
# => Lambda two with bar

What are the differences between Procs and Lambdas :

  • Procs don’t care about the correct number of arguments, while lambdas will throw an exception.
  • return and break behave differently in procs and lambdas. Lambdas will not interrupt the flow, even if return or break is encountered.
  • next behaves the same in Procs and Lambdas.
Block Proc Lambda
Class Proc Proc Proc
Will stop execution flow N/A Yes No
May be assigned to variable No Yes Yes
Is number of args important? No No Yes

Key takeaways

Now that we’ve covered the two blocks, procs and lambdas, let’s step back and summarize the comparison.

  • Blocks are widely used in Ruby to pass bits of code to functions. By using the yield keyword, a block can be passed implicitly without having to convert it to proc.

  • When using parameters preceded by ampersands, passing a block to a method results in a proc in the context of the method. Procs behave like blocks, but they can be stored in a variable.

  • Lambdas are procs that behave like methods, meaning they enforce arity and return as methods rather than in their parent scope.

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